کرمانشاه

Kermanshah Over Time
Population and Race of People in Kermanshah
Natural Resources of the Province
Mosques and Historical Sites of the Province

Kermanshah is located in the west of Iran. This province neighbors Kurdistan from the north, Hamadan from east, Lorestan from the south-east and Ilam from the south. It also has Iraq as its neighbor in the west. Kermanshah province is part of the Zagros mountain range. Different geological periods are due to the movement of Africa-Saudi Arabia plate towards Iran and as a result of the emergence of folding of the sediments of the second and early third centuries. After the formation of highlands and pits, erosion factors have affected them. Holes or synclinal are made of alluvial materials due to erosion action, and today's plains of the province are the result. The material of ripples is often sedimentary and lime-shaped, the typical example of which is the Bistoon and Parow mountains, in the southwest of the province.Gypsum floors are widely seen in the south west of the province including mountains around the Gilan-e-Gharb and Qasr-e-Shirin. The roughness around the city of Sonqor vary in terms of the formation of the rocks and the Zagros Mountains, which means that the Zagros mountain range is older and when folding have been affected by erruptions and magma.

 

Kermanshah over time
Historical province of Kermanshah, like other parts of our old country, has preserved signs of the great times and majesty of Iran in its mountains and plains. Unlike other parts of Iran that have been settled temporally, the province has been inhabited continuously in different periods of history. Archaeological evidence suggests that this area was one of the first human habitats and  was considered as an important center of the population in the middle Zagros. All stages of the human life from the time of the Stone Age to the prehistoric civilization periods and then the formation of great governments have evolved in this area so that the Bistoon hunter's caves reveals interesting facts about the history of human life during the Paleolithic period in Iran. After this period, about 9,000 years ago, due to the warming of the air, the man left the cave and started settling in a specific place that led to agriculture and rearing livestock. As a result, villages were formed, which are undoubtedly the first villages in the province. These include the treasure of the Harsin valley, the Gachia and the Sarab Hill. The prehistoric people of the Treasure Valley are among the first human beings who invented pottery in Iran and brought on industrial activities.

In the 4th millennium BC, Kermanshah Province was one of the most important commercial and trade centers, and its merchants traded with chaussée and Mesopotamian merchants. The presence of markets in Godin Kangavar and Choghagavaneh, Islamabad, are among the evidence of that period.

According to the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions, the Zagros inhabitants were the Lolubi and Gautian tribes. These hard-working people have been in constant conflict with the Mesopotamia in order to protect this area and made significant advances in respect, and since then the Zagros valleys have become the center of Iranian civilization and Mesopotamian governments, and eventually Iranian Civilization dominated this system. The presence of the high reliefs of these tribes in Sar-Pul Zahab, which is one of the oldest high reliefs in the Middle East countries, reveals this issue.
Due to the proximity of the Assyrian state, the Kermanshah region was constantly exposed to the attacks of the Assyrian state, and kings, such as Ticklat Polissar, Shelmanaser III, have repeatedly fought in the Kermanshah area. Areas such as Persia, Zakrathy, and the land of Nishani are mentioned in the inscriptions of the Assyrians. Nishan is a name used for the current Kermanshah and Maheshdas and was famous for its famous pasture lands for keeping horses. The Assyrian almanac names a city called Elipa,which  has been identified as a city  between Kermanshah and Hamadan, and some other historians have introduced it at the current site of Kermanshah.

With the formation of governments, this area is also considered to be one of the most important centers of the period, with its valuable monuments such as the Goddin Castle in Kangavar. During this period, Kermanshah was one of Iran's most important highways and the Ekbatan Babylon road crossed this city.
During the Achaemenid era, the road of Shahi, which connected EKbatan to Babylon, was added to the prosperity of the region. After the disappearance of the Achaemenids, during the Seleucid period, various areas of Kermanshah, such as Bistoon and Dinwar, were the location of the Greek colonies, but it was not until late that they defeated the Parthians and entered the area. Parthian high reliefs in Bistoon, represents this issue. During this period, Bistoon was considered one of the major centers of the Parthian period.

Kermanshah province has enjoyed a boom in any other period during the Sassanid period.This area has always been of interest to Sassanian kings, and because of their close proximity to their capital, Ctesiphon, they spent their summer in this summer palaces. In the news of Islamic historians, it has come to the fore that Khosrow I built a palace in the Tagh Bostan district of Kermanshah, where he hosted the kings of China , India, and the Rome and other rulers of the time.

With the construction of cities like Halvan, on one hand, and the Sassanid kings' policy of urbanization in the west, which led to the foundation of Kermanshah, this area became more and more important and the Sassanid kings brought welfare and economic prosperity to the people of this country by building bridges on rivers and constructing public buildings.
With the defeat of the Sassanid by the Muslims, the people of this region, unlike some other areas, were among the first to believe in and promote the sacred religion of Islam.
Abdullah bin Omar mosque in Rijab, one of the oldest Islamic mosques is a memorial of that time. The tomb of Abu Dhajana in Rijiab is attributed to one of the loyal companions of the Prophet of Islam, who helped him in the battles. In the period of the Abbasid caliphs, Kermanshah was one of the four most important cities in the province of Jabal. The famous Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rasheid paid special attention to it, as tourists recall the city's prosperity and beauty.

Ibn Houkhel and Estakhri mention Kermanshah as a beautiful city with plenty of water and trees. Moghaadasi introduces Kermanshah along with Hamedan, Ray and Isfahan as the four famous cities of Jabal province.
In the third century AH, Kermanshah was in the territory of the Saffarid. In the fourth century, a small circle of Kurds, named Hasnoyeh, became independent in the western provinces. The founder of this dynasty, Hasnoyeh, that is the most famous of this family, also ruled for nearly fifty years, and headed the great castle of Sermaj. In 441, Sultan Tugrul Seljuk sent a hundred thousand troops to conquer the castle, and managed to conquer the castle after four years. In the sixth century AH, Sultan Sanjar of the Seljuk, appointed his nephew, Solomon Shah, Eyveh  as the ruler of Kermanshah and its surrounding areas. Like Khorasan and other parts of Iran, Kermanshaha, suffered heavy damage from the Mongol invasion, in the seventh century as the Holakoo troops carried out a massacre in this area. However, at the end of the Ilkhani period under the rule of Abu Sa'id, this area became the focus of attention so that at the time of his ruling, Soltanieh Chamchamal was built near Bistoon. At that time, as Hamdullah Mostofi points out, Kermanshahan was one of the 16 provinces of Kurdistan.

In the nineteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Kermanshah was attacked by the Ottomans. At this time, Harsin and Mahidasht were governorats but the name of Kermanshah as governorate is not mentioned anywhere.

During the Safavid period, Kermanshahan became important. During the reign of Shah Tahmasb, a first government called Kalhor, and at the time of Shah Safi, a government under the name of Songhor and Kalhor was formed and then transferred to Zangeneh's khans. In fact, from this time on, the restoration of Kermanshah and the formation of the current province began.
At the same time as the Afghan invasion and the fall of Isfahan, Kermanshahan also faced the Ottoman uprising and once again got ruined. At the time of Zandiyeh's ruling, Zanganeh and the people of Kermanshah did not accept the rule of Karim Khan. Therefore, Kermanshah was confronted with siege and destruction for some time. In the Qajar period, Kermanshah, became important. Fath Ali Shah appointed one of his sons, Mohammad Ali Mirza Dolatshah, as the head of border watchmen of Iraq, and added the state of Khuzestan to his territory. In fact, at this time, Kermanshah was transferred to a military base stationed against the Ottoman government.

Etymology of Kermanshah
Kermanshah was called Kambaden and Kambadeneh before Islam. At the beginning of Islam, it was called Qurmaysin and Qurmashin. After the Islamic Revolution, the name was changed to Ghahrmanshahr and also the Bakhteran, and then again was called Kermanshah. Dr. Moein in his Persian dictionary probably citing Hamdollah Mostofi, wrote this quote under the word of Kermanshah:" This city was built at the time of the Sassanid dynasty, and its founder was the fourth Bahram (known as Kermanshah). In Bandhashen book (the Primary Creation), that includes the mythological geography and various creatures such as animals and trees and lands, mountains and rivers, and its initial compilation was during the Sassanid period, the word "Kermishan" is mentioned which refers to "Chicken Mountain in Laran,  Zarrin Mountain in Turkestan, Mountain Bashtoon in Kerminshan and more which were areas for commuting". Late Dr. Mehrdad Bahar has pointed out: "It should be noted that the name of Kermanshah is likely to be a change from Kerminshan. Kermishan and Kermashan are the ancient name of this land in the middle period of our history, and Kermanshahis call themselves "Kermashahi".

But some scholars believe that the term "Kermashan" consists of three parts, "kar - a - siay", which means the holy place of the Madhs, and we can find the meaning of these three components in the inscription of Bistoon. Dr. Mohsen Abolghasemi, in the book of the history of Farsi, has translated the inscription of Dariush word by word three of which is mentioned here:

kara means the army people.
madai ,male singular of madha which means "mad".
Siyan in the language of Elamite in the inscription of Bistoon means holy place.
The sum of these three words means "the sacred place of the people of the Mads", which has been written in various ways, including "Qarmisin, Qarmasin, Qarmashin, Kermishan, Kermishan, Kermashan"
The population of Kermanshah

, Kermanshah was captured by the Ottoman forces in the First World War, but after the collapse of Baghdad, they left the city and retreated. During the Second World War, it was captured by the British military.
According to the latest census of population and housing in 1996, the population of Kermanshah province is over 1879,385 people, which is about 3% of the total population of the country, and is ranked thirteenth in the whole country. Of these, 35.59% live in urban areas and 39.30% in rural areas, and the rest of the population are non-residents. Of the total population, 916,310 were male and 86, 2286 were women, resulting in a sex ratio of 106, or in other words, there were 106 males in the province, compared with every 100 females. This ratio was 107 in infants less than one year old and 137 in adults 65 years and above. Of the population of this province, 14.4 percent are in the age group of 65 and more. 55.14% are between 15-64 years old and 40.71% are less than 15 years old. In 1996, the literacy rate in the population of 6 years and older reached 76.57%, which is 97.94% in urban areas and 92.2% in rural and non-residential areas. In other words, on average, 9 people are literate from every 10 people in the province.

The Race of People in Kermanshah
Although commenting on the Kurd race is hard to do, it seems, that  Kurds in Kermanshah are Aryan and are from the ancient inhabitants of Iran's plateau like Aryan Kurds in Kurdestan. This race is one of the branches of the Aryan race that entered Iran from the 2nd millennium BC and settled in the Zagros Mountains.
Kurds are Iranian-born people whose language, culture, and traditions are in contact with other peoples in the realm of Iranian ethnic groups. In the Sumerian and Assyrian documents, they are part of the tribes living in the mountainous land of East Asia, the northeastern and eastern Mesopotamia, and the Sumerian land, called Keraty or Guddi, and the Carti and Card, and in the Armenian sources the word Kurdokh refers to them. In the Greek writings of the fourth century BC, it is explicitly referred to as Kurdukhi, and scholars believe that Kurdukhi, had a racial relationship with the Kurds. From the Achaemenid period to the post-Islamic era, these people are called Kourd and Kurd.

Language and dialect
Language of people in Kermanshah is Kurdish. Kurdish is a relative of the Persian language, since similarity of grammatical rules and the lexical reserve of Iranian languages is the result of their relative kinship. The Kurdish language, which is a branch of the Middle Persian-speaking Northwest, is very important because of its written literature. However, the influence of other languages is significant in this language as many words in Arabic, Armenian, Turkish and Persian have found their way in it.
The historical record of the Kurds and their dispersion has led to the emergence of countless dialects, including:

Kurdish dialect
This dialect is used mostly among the Kalhor people, and the regions that speak almost the dialect include Eilat Zanganeh, Sangabi, Ahmadvand, Buhtori, Nankali, Pairavand, Qasreshirin, Sarpol-e Zahab, Khalkhani, Kerandi, Khale Zangiri  residnts of  Kermanshah, Sahneh and the people of Dinewar. It should borne in mind that the pronunciation and vocabulary of the Kalhor people are authentic and in other places, due to the adjacency with other dialects of the words has changed.

Orami
Most people of two large tribes in of Lehooni in the Oraman region of Kermanshah, as well as the people of Oraman Takht and Oraman Razab tribes near Kurdistan, the Big Bajlan tribe, some of whom live in the plains of Zhehab or near Khanqin, and several villages in the Gooran region and all the people of Kandoleh in Dinewar speak this dialect.
Sourani

Numerous Jaff tribes of Javanrood and a number of tribes of immigrant Goorans, the people of Zahab Plain, and Jaygiran, the entire area of Ravansar and some branches of Sangabi speak with this dialect. This dialect is a simple form of Kermanj.
Laki
The inhabitants of Harsin, the tribes of Kakavand, Balvand, Jalalvand, and Usman-Vand speak the dialect. This is a mixture of Kurdish dialect and Lori. It also has some vocabularies from the Orami dialect.

In addition to Kurdish dialects, Kermanshahi people speak Kermanshahi Persian (Farsi Kermanshahi) and people in Songhor speak in Turkish. The Kermanshahi Persian dialect of Kermanshahi people is unique to this city. This accent is richly proverbial, and the transformed Kurdish words are revitalized by being applied and used in Kermanshahi Persian.

 

Natural Resources of Kermanshah

Number

Name of the mountain

Hight

Location

1

Shahoo

3390

Northeast of Paveh

2

Parow

3359

Northeast of Kermanshah

3

Boyer

3230

North of Songhor

4

Meroolah

3203

North of Sahneh

5

Nokhod Chal

3097

Northwest of Kangavar

6

Panjehali

2883

Songhor

7

Balooch

2850

North west of Kermanshah

8

Kooh Sefid

2805

South of Kermanshah

9

Bisetoon

2752

North west of Bisetoon

10

Shirez

2697

Harsin

11

Shah Neshin

2576

Kandoolah

12

Shahan

2546

Islam Abad

13

Atashghah

2462

South of Paveh

14

Ghaleh Ghazi

2367

Sanjabi

15

Daneh Khosk

1340

Sar pol Zahab

16

Bazi Draz

1320

Ghasre Shirin


Characteristics of plains in Kermanshah

Number

Nam of the plain

Sea Level (meter)

Area (Kilometer)

Location

1

Mahidasht

1400

1650

Mahidasht

2

Kermanshah

1350

1100

Kermanshah

3

Sahneh- Bistoon

1400

460

Sahneh- Bistoon

4

Islamabad

1300

460

Islamabad

5

Kangavar

1500

363

Kangavar

6

Songhor Kolyaei

1750

260

Songhor

7

Hasanabad

1450

251

Ialamabad

8

Dinewar

1350

200

Sahneh

9

Kerend

1500

100

Islamabad

10

Gilangharb

800

45

Gilangharb

11

Zahab

550

170

Sarpol Zahab

12

Soomar

300

11

Ghasre Shirin

 


 

General Specifications of Rivers of the Province
 

Number

River

Important minor branches

Annual Discharge (million cubic meter)

1

Sirvan

Gavehrood- Gheshlagh-Azadrood- Paveh river

2700

2

Gamasyab

GholGholrood of Khoramabad and Dinwar river

7/1081

3

Gharesoo

Merek-Ravansar and Azavar

289

4

Alvand

Ghalehshahin Kanirish- Tanga and Sarabgarm

400

 

 

Mosques and Historical Places of Kermanshah
 Grand Mosque of Kermanshah
Grand mosque is located in the old section of Kermanshah on Modarres Street. Only a small part of mausoleum (Shabestan) of this mosque is left today. This Shabestan has forty-five archs, and at the present only twenty-five arches are left. On the southern side of the mosque, there were two storeys that were school. The mosque is constructed in the form of mosques of the Zandian period, according to the inscription of the mosque, it has been built in 1196 AH at the time of Ali Moradkhan Zand's ruling. In the southern part of the mosque, there is another mosque with the present courtyard and shabestan known as Amiri Mosque. The constructor of this mosque, Amir-Nazam Zanganeh, was one of the descendants of Sheikh Alikhan Zanganeh, a member of the Mohammad Shah from Qajar dynasty in the early days of Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar's reign.

Mosque and Husseinieh of Sheikh Mahmoud Tam Tam
This mosque was built in 1984 by Sheikh Mahmoud (end of Reza Khan's and early Pahlavi's reign) in Tam Tam section in the southwest of Ravansar city at a location with 46 degrees and 38 minutes longitude and 34 degrees and 38 minutes of latitude and 1360 meters above sea level. Tam Tam village is a very rich location and is surrounded by Tam Tam hills, Rahim Hills and Gol Pari Hills.
In general, the mosque and Hosseiniyeh complex is located next to the rural texture. The mosque has a simple courtyard with wooden pillars, and bricks and plaster used in its construction. The windows of the mosque are crescent, so that they are originally made of wood with the Qajar period style and with colored glass, but their form has changed in the course of time and replaced by iron windows. On the left side of the mosque is Hosseinieh, which has a plain courtyard with several plaster archs. Hosseiniyeh windows are in the form of Crescent similar to its windows. Part of Hosseinieh, now inhabited by the descendants of Sheikh Mahmud, has brick and straw bale walls. Brick pads are located around the entrance and there is a stone porch. On the north side of the village is the old and new cemetery of the village, which includes the tomb of Sheikh Mahmud the builder of Tam Tam Mosque.

Paveh Mosque
This mosque is located on Imam Mohammad Shafei Street in northern Paveh city. It is apparently erected on the remnants of the Temple of the Sassanid Period. The mosque is without a courtyard and consists of a rectangular porch. The porch is 1520 meters in size, with 15 wooden pillars inside, each with a height of 30 meters. In recent years, the mosque has been renovated and its main form has been changed. This mosque has a minaret. People attribute the site of the mosque to the early days of Islam, and believe that it was built during the time of the second caliph, Abdullah bin Umar on the orders of his son. In recent years, the mosque has been developed and a new building has been constructed using the style of the al-Nabi mosque in Madinah.
Dowlatshah Mosque

This mosque is located in Faizabad neighborhood and on the street of Kazazi. The mosque was built by Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah, the eldest son of Fatali Shah, along with the Kermanshah City Council, which at that time consisted of 12 mansions. The spiral stone pillars, the Mogharnas altar and the beautiful plaster works of the women's porch, have given this mosque a special beauty..
 
 
Haj Shahbaz Khan Mosque

 

This mosque is located in the old texture of Kermanshah on Modarres Street. The mosque has a large porch with twelve monolithic stone pillars and the porch archs built on it. Some arch springs are decorated in  ceramic work (Maghal kari). The mosque, which has been the home of religious scholars for many years, was built in 1235 AH by Haj Shahbaz Khan and his six brothers, the founders of the famous Hajizadegan tribe..
 

 

Shazdeh Mosque
The mosque is located on lands known as four gardens (Char Bagh). The mosque has a porch, with 15 archs arranged on tiled brick pillars. The mosque was built on the orders of Mohammad Ali Mirza'i Dowlatshah.

 
Emad ul Dawleh Mosque
        
 
 

This is one of the most magnificent Qajar mosques in the city of Kermanshah, which was built in 1285 AH by Emamgoli Mirza Emad ul Dawleh, the governor of the West in goldsmiths market. The mosque has a central courtyard which is surrounded by chambers for religious scholarship and in accordance with the terms and conditions endowment letter, should be used for living and studying based on certain conditions. Emad ul Dawleh mall and caravanserai, which consists of hundreds of shops and chambers, is dedicated to the expenses of this mosque.
After the construction of this mosque, the builder brought one of the doors of Imam Ali's shrine to Kermanshah and installed it in the mosque, he dedicated a silver door to Alawi's household. This entrance is now located at the entrance of the mosque and the market of goldsmiths, and is known as the "Shah of Najaf". This wooden door belongs to the Safavid period.

Abdullah bin Omar Mosque
This mosque is one of the early Islamic mosques located in the village of Shalan from Rijab suburbs. The foundation of this building was built on a pre-Islamic building. The mosque is a rectangular shape with a length of 18 meters and a width of 107 meters. Inside the mosque's porch, eight pillars are in parallel in two rows. These pillars are of two types. Four foursquare pillars of 75 by 75 cm, each with the same size and four other pillars of the same length, each consists of three parts. The first part, which starts from the mosque floor up to 30 cm and is in the form of a rectangular, and reaches up to 20.2 meters in the form of a cylinder, and in the third section of the column, it is again seen in the shape of a quadrangle. On top of these two rows, the pillars have two thickly trimmed logs on which the horizontal beams of the mosque are placed.

Unlike other mosques, the altar of the mosque has not been removed from the southern wall, but has been added to the mosque wall by molding. The minaret of the mosque is back to the altar and its materials are stones and gypsum. It has five steps.

The mosque minaret was built a long time after the construction of the mosque, in the southwest of the roof. The entrance to the minaret is from the roof of the mosque. The minaret has 21 staircases of triangular shape. On top of it there is a cone dome. The minaret entry has a cradle-shaped arch and its exterior facade is decorated with wood and gypsum.

 

A number of archeological works of Kermanshah province in chronological order                                                                                 

The name of Historical Monument

Historical Era

Geographical Location

Shekarchi Cave

40000 years ago

Bistoon Mountain

Anoubani Relief

3000 BC

Sarpol Zahab

Dehnow Ishaghvand  Dungeon

Madhs

Harsin

Bistoon Inscription

Achaemenid

Bistoon

Herkool Statue

Selukian

Bistoon

Ghoodarz I &II Relief

Parthians

Bistoon

Tag-e-Bostan Complex

Sassanid

Kermanshah

Malek mausoleum

Timurian

Songhor Kolyaei

Caravansarei

Safavid

Bistoon , Mahidasht

Moave'n ul molk Tekyeh

Qajar

Kermanshah

 

   Historical, Cultural and Natural Attractions                                                                                                                                                      

Name of Attraction

Type and Era

Characteristics

Approximate Distance to the closest city

Road type

Darius inscription and relief

Achaemenid relief

Historical

Bistoon 500 meters

Asphalt

Hercules Statue

Suluki Statue

Historical

Bistoon 500 meters

Asphalt

Ghoodarz Relief

Parthian Relief

Historical

Bistoon 500 meters

Asphalt

Tir Badat Relief

Parthian Relief

Historical

Bistoon 500 meters

Asphalt

Parthian Prince

Sassanid Relief

Historical

Bistoon 500 meters

Asphalt

Tag-e- Bostan

Sassanid monument collection

Historical

Kermanshah

Asphalt

Anahita Temple

Parthian Relief

Historical

Kangavar

Asphalt

Tage Gara

Sassanid bas relief

Historical

Sar pol Zahab

chaussée

Yazdgerd Castle

Historical Sassanid Castle

Historical

Kerend

 

Anobani

Relief 2800 BC

Historical

Sarpol Zahab

Asphalt

Dokane Davoud

Dungeon and Madh relief

Historical

Sarpol Zahab

Asphalt

Chartaghi

Sassanid fire temple

Historical

Gasre Shirin

Asphalt

Moavo'n ul Molk Tekyeh

Qajar tekyeh

Cultural

Kermanshah

Asphalt

Baba Yadegar mausoleum

Mausoleum

Cultural

Kerend

chaussée

Yademaneh Jang(War Memorial)

Contemporary culture

Cultural

Mahidasht

Asphalt

Ahmade in Issaq mausoleum

580 AH mausoleum

Cultural

Sarpol Zahab

chaussée

 Malek mausoleum

Teimouri mausoleum

Historical

Songor

Asphalt

Mahidasht Carvansarei

Safavid

Historical

Mahidasht

Asphalt

Sarab Niloofar

 

Natural

Kermanshah 25 Kms

Asphalt

Talab Hashilan

 

Natural

Kermanshah 25 Kms

Asphalt

Ghouri Ghaleh

 

Natural

Paveh

Asphalt

Sarab Garm

 

Natural

Sarpol Zahab

Asphalt

Sarab Khezre Elyas

 

Natural

Kermanshah 20 Kms

Asphalt

Sarab Sahneh

 

Natural

Sahneh

Asphalt

Sarab Ravansar

 

Natural

Ravansar

Asphalt

Rijab region

 

Natural

Kerend

Asphalt

Imamzadeh Ahmad in Mohammad Bagher

 

Cultural

Songhor

Asphalt

Mirabdoula Tomb

 

Cultural

Nowsoud

Asphalt

 

 

  

Kermanshah traditional market












Hercules Statue

 

Hercules Statue
This relief which was discovered in 1958 during the construction of the Hamedan- Kermanshah Road shows a strong and completely naked man lying on a lion figure under the shadow of a tree. He is leaning halfway up the elbow on the left side. In her left hand, there is a cup that is held up to his face. This person has his right hand on the right leg and his left foot supports the other foot.

Behind the character, a relief and an inscription are sculpted. These reliefs include a tree whose branches hold an arch and arrow case, and has a knot-shaped cone-shaped mace on it. An inscription in the Greek line is written in seven rows on a tablet that looks like a Greek temple (Santorum). The theme of this inscription is as follows: "In 164 the month of Paneh, this celebration was hold for the salvation of Amen Kol, the commander-in-chief, by the victorious Hercules, of Hiacenius the son of Piantius."

If we consider this year as the source of the Suluki history that is 312 BC, it will be 148 BC, which will coincide with Mehrdad the first..
 

Moave'n ul Mulk Tekyeh


 
 

Moave'n ul Mulk Tekyeh
Moave'n ul-Mulk  tekyeh is one of the remnants of the Qajar period in Kermanshah, whose unique tiles distinguish it from that of other cities. This building is located in the old texture of of the city, that is Abshooran, and on the street of Haddad Adel. It was built on the orders of Hussein Khan, known as Moin al-Roaya. The building consists of three parts: the first part is Hosseinieh, the second part is Zainabieh, and the third part is Abbasiyeh.
The complex is about 6 meters below the street level, so to enter Husseinieh, one has to cross 17 high stairs. Next to the entrance steps, there is a small tile decorated with Hazrat Abolfazl's paintings. Hazrat Abu al-Fazl is on horseback, with swords on waist and flags in his hand. On the flag, it is written "Nasro Al-Men allah va Fatah ul Qarib" that is assistance comes from God and victory is close. In front of the rider's foot, the picture of the young child is also visible. People attribute the picture of the rider to Hazrat Abolfazl and the child to Hazrat Sakineh who has asked for water from his uncle Abbas. Hence, they respect this place and vow there, turn candles on and ask for their wishes to come true. Throughout the entrance, the entrance is decorated with exquisite tiles.

Husseinieh is in fact a small courtyard surrounded by two-story chambers and arches of numerous facades, all of which adorned with beautiful tiled walls. Inside the arches of this section are covered with tiles. These pictures, scenes of mourning, including breastplate, fluttering, as well as images of the caliphs and sultans of Iran, depict the court of Solomon. In addition to tiles with human designs, tiles with beautiful geometric designs are also used

 

Biglarbeighi Tekyeh

This building is located in the old Feizabad neighborhood and in the Sarem al-Dawlah alley. This Tekyeh, built in the Qajar period by Abdullah Khan, who was nicknamed "Biglarbeighi", is unique in terms of mirror work in Kermanshah's Tekyehs.
On the western side of the courtyard, is the great Hall of Mirror work, known as Husseiniyh. This hall has been decorated with a great number of inscriptions related to the reign of Mozafar al-Din Shah. On the other hand, there is a spacious guest room.
On the western side of the courtyard, the Hall of Mirror is a great work, known as Husseiniyeh. This hall has been decorated with a great number of inscriptions related to the reign of Mozafar al-Din Shah. On the other side of the hall, is a spacious guest room of Biglarbeighi tekyeh.












 

Khosrow Palace
In the northern margin of the current city of Qasr-e-Shirin and near the four-story fire temple, the ruins of the Palace of Khosrow, Parviz, is just soil today and leveled to the ground. This palace is built on a platform with a height of 8 meters. The building was built in the eastern western direction with the size of 98 by 285 ms, which is the enterance to the building through a two-way staircase.

In the eastern part of the building, there is a rectangular hall with its roof covered with brick archs. At the back of the hall, a large dome was built, whose entrance is through the gateway created in the western part of the hall. On both sides of the north and south of the dome room, there are rectangular rooms accessible through the dome room. Also behind the dome room is a square-shaped courtyard with a porch with pillars, measuring 27 by 27 meters. Around this pillared courtyard are a number of rooms. In the western part of the yard there is also a porch that leads through the courtyard to another courtyard. There is also a collection of rooms and stables around the courtyards.

In the northern part of the terrace, there are several houses in the same complex. Oscar Reuters states that houses located in the central part of the mansion are likely to form the king's seraligo, and houses located outside the building are a place to host guests.
Iranian and Arab historian and geographers, each, has written something about this palace, most of them say that the palace was built by Khosrow Parviz in a vast garden in which wild animals lived freely and abundance of water from the Alvand River made its way into it. Baghoot has considered this garden as one of the wonders of the world which was destroyed by Heraclius in 628 AD.

 

Kermanshah's Traditional Arts 
Rug weaving
Rug eaving is common in most parts of Iran, especially among Qashqa'is, Elsons, Kurds,

Lurs and Baluchs. Rug weaving like a lot of different handicrafts, are typical to rural women and the Iranian women of nomadic and rural areas are the creator of delicate designs and pleasant colors, which are in their very nature perfectly made.

The weaving machine is often placed horizontally on the ground, its flipping is roughly like a carpet, the warps are often white and cotton, and the wefts woolen and colorful, and women create different patterns with colorful wefts on the wool.
Weaving rugs is practiced in different ways in Iran. In most parts of Iran, all methods are common, but each color and pattern used by weavers in different regions has its own characteristics, and whose pattern and color determine its place of production.  Rugs are one of the most popular flooring in Kermanshah.

Moj Weaving
Moj is woven using a device in Nodsheh and Javanrood centers. There are two types of Moj production in weaving workshops:
1- Praying carpet
2- Bed cloth wrapper whose length is always 2 meters and its width ranges from 45 to 57 centimeters. The wrapper has a variety of uses, including wrapping the mattresses, covering the kursi and cushions at homes.

Carpet weaving
Sayed Abdullah's carpet production which started by a producer of the same name in Kermanshah and increase in other designs influenced by Saroq carpets, Kerman and Bijar carpets in fact represents the history of Kermanshah's urban carpet weaving at the beginning of this century. In general, the original and real rugs of Kermanshah should be searched in rural areas and their roots can be found in the vast range of nomadic carpets that join the ancient and historical woven carpets of Iran.

Weaving carpets have been a gender specific activity, with self-consuming value and indigenous and local patterns has existed in many villages and among the tribes of the Kermanshah region since many years ago. Certainly known designs which have the names of certain villages are evidence of this. Among these are the designs of Keywanani, Hossein Abadi, Akbarabadi, etc. The villages whose names appear on these designs are the birthplace of these designs, or maybe their weavers have been more skillful in this regard.

             




 

Givehkeshi
Old travelers had to choose resistant footwear which were light and cool in the heat and cold, and were appropriate for covering and protecting the foot. All of these needs led to the production of the unique footwear called Giveh in different parts of Iran. . Giveh is light, comfortable, resistant, cool and inexpensive compared to other items for living. Giveh is a common family production. That is women produce the top and men produce the bottom of Giveh. Takhteh keshi which is the production of men is done with fabric and leather. The raw materials include: cow's skin, which is used as narrow strips at the bottom, fat (or tallow) is used to reduce the friction and comfort of sewing work to the bark or skin strips, the thread that is more often made from  goat hair, used for stitching around giveh, and a thin woolen fabric that is used as thin wicks for use on the bottom of giveh. Giweh is painted with natural and artificial colors and tragacanth used to starch the wicker fabrics. Givehkeshi work is performed in two household and workshop stages.Workshop (shop) works are done with a variety of tools by men, and homemade one is related to the top of giveh and is done by rural women. Currently, giveh is produced in Yazd, Isfahan and Kermanshah,and is more productive in Kermanshah.

In Kermanshah, there are four typical types of giveh: flat plain qulited giveh whose flat sole has been qulited with tufted thread, and is resitant and is the best-quality giveh. The flat leather that is gradually replaced by flat qulited giveh and whose sole is made of buffalo leather.A flat plastic giveh has more buyers because of its cheapness, and a silk top giveh  whose top is made of colorful silk threads features geometric designs and is eye-catching.



 

Kurdish Melodies of Kermanshah
Hora is one of the oldest melodies among Kurd. It is said that the famous Barbod used to sing Hora for Khosrow and Shirin . Unlike the last few decades, Hora was sung along with Tambour. This melody has fourteen maghams that include 1- Ghaleh Khak 2- Ghaleh va Darah 3- Bala Dastani4- Shah-Hosseini 5- Sarou Khani 6. Jelo Shahi 7-Tarz 8- Majnooni 9. Kerri 10. Paryeh 11.- Dobala 12 Gharivi 13-Baneh Beneyei 14-Paveh Murry, each of which has some other parts.
The other type species is moyeh or moor, which is sung by women, and sometimes men, in mourning and people's deaths.

With the rise of Sufism in the Kurd parts of the country, Sunnis and Dervāsh Ghadiri group sang Hora in a special way with the charm and crying and prayer, giving a mystical color to it so that it became known as the grief. Kurdish fighters also sang Hora in the war.
From other tiers and Kurdish songs, we can name, Haji Hasani, Basteh Negar, Ghatar and Ghraiee that runs on Dastghahe shoor. There are two other types of Kurdish melody, Gurani and Siah Chamaneh that are more common in Javanrood and Oraman. Gurani is from Bahari songs, whose verses are couplets and is sung in spring, weddings and celebrations accompanied by Shemshal or without a musical instrument. Siya Chamaneh is from Fall time songs, and it's singing time is fall when the leaves fall on the ground and is not accompanied by cheering and happiness and is very sad.
 

 

Local Music Instruments


Dozaleh: A dozaleh is a wind instrument that is made from a bone of a eagle or even a straw, so that two pairs of bones are fixed together with wax, then six holes are made on it and a fakhieh is used to blow in it. The melodies are performed with fingers. With a prolonged blow by the mouth in a fakhieh, a pleasant appealing sound is created. Dozaleh is a type of instrument that is festive and used for both weddings and mourning ceremonies

 Dayereh: Dayereh is a circle shaped ring made of soft wood, and covered with thin skin of sheep or goat and little bells are used all around it orderly. Using/ playing dayereh is a common in celebration

 Sorna: is an instrument that is festive used in both weddings and mournings

Shemshal: This is a wind instrument that is made of metal and looks like a flute and is played like it. This instrument is actually the shepherd's flute that has three epic, mystical and medical aspects
 

Tambour: is a holy musical instrument that is prevalent in the Guran area and Sahneh among Ahle Hagh people. This is a string instrument with a long handle like Sitar, with the difference that the handle is more natural than that of Sitar. Currently, Tambour in the main musical instrument of solo and co-play singing  in the province of Kermanshah and the Kurdish regions. It can be argued that without this instrument, the mystical music of these regions never has a complete meaning, and this has made it so sacrosanct that people of some regions do not play it without ablution, and its musicians are well-known people and have a spiritual value among the people. Other local instruments include Tonbak, Naylak, Dohol



Economic Resources of the Province
Agriculture
Kermanshah province is considered as having a high potential for agricultural development due to its specific climate and high quality soils, abundant water, vast plains and fertile and long valleys. The abovementioned factors have made this province one of the largest grain producers in the country. Kermanshah has two cold and tropical climates. The cold regions of the province are favorable for the cultivation of grains, beans, sugar beet, oilseeds and vegetables. Tropical areas also have the capacity to cultivate grains, melons, vegetables, citrus and palm trees.

Animal husbandry
Another economic activity of the province is animal husbandry. Kermanshah e as one of the nomadic centers of the country with suitable rangelands, being in the Zagros slopes, possessing special capacity in the water and soil, as well as being close to the provinces of Ilam and Lorestan, has long been one of the important poles of animal husbandry and agriculture at the national level. It has always been a supplier of part of the country's livestock products. In general, livestock breeding in the province is carried out in three ways: fixed, semi-movable and movable.
Fisheries
Kermanshah Province is one of the most susceptible and expandable aquaculture areas in the country. Abundant water resources such as permanent rivers, springs, ponds and wetlands have created favorable conditions for the development of fish farming in the province. The other economic resources of the province are apiculture and poultry breeding.

Handicrafts
Kermanshah province has long developed in the field of industry along with the development of agriculture and animal husbandry and many ancient works that are an expression of the talents and skillful hands of the artists of this country.  The handicrafts of the people of this province include givehkeshi, moj weaving, weaving curtains, etching, making metal tools, weaving rugs, felt- making, jajiim weaving, weaving carpets, etc. Industry is another industrial resource of Kermanshah province. The first step towards establishing industries was the construction of the Kermanshah Oil Refinery, which in fact can be considered the first modern industrial unit in the western region. Due to its high agricultural potential, Kermanshsh has required the establishment of agricultural affiliated factories, including the Bistoon and Islamabad sugar factories, which has boosted agriculture and beet cultivation and increased employment in the region. The cement factory in 12 km of Kermanshah-Hamedan Road, is one of two major cement manufacturing units in the western part of the country and has had a significant impact on the region's economic development.

Other industrial units include Bistoon thermal power plant, West textile factory, West Wool, Kashmir wool weaving, a factory producing all kinds of wire and cable, paint production factory, nylon production plant, animal and poultry food production factories.

Natural Geography and Climate of the Province
Kermanshah Province is a mountainous area that lies between the Iranian plateau and the Mesopotamia, and is surrounded by peaks and highlands of the Zagros Mountain Range. The Zagros Mountain Range is in the form of a series of parallel mountain ranges, in which high mountain plains is formed and make the bedrock of important Zagros crossroads. Kermanshah Province is exposed to Mediterranean wet air front, which causes snow and rain in contact with Zagros heights. In Kermanshah province, different climates can be distinguished.

1. Mild winter and hot and dry summers: the cities of Qasr-e-Shirin, Sar-e-Pol-e Zahab and the Azgeleh village in the southwest of Jangrood County.
2. Cool winter and summer: the cities of Paveh and Javanrood (except the village of Azgaleh) and the Kernd section of the city of Islamabad Gharb.
3. Semi-dry and warm steppic climate: Cangavar, Sahneh and Harsin.

Weather in Kermanshah
According to meteorologists' comments and based on the annual recorded atmospheric statistics and local experiences, Kermanshah province has a tropical climate. Other parts of the province are influenced by climate and other factors that create the climatic conditions of this area. Among the main factors are the first arrival and crossing of the Mediterranean air stream, which is the main cause of rainfall in Kermanshah province. Second, the mountains of the province, which are located in the way of the wet humid flows of the west, and generally the foothills especially the ones facing west which  are more humid and the ones facing east have less humidity
The rainfall is different in various areas depending on height so that the enclosed plains have less rainfall, and in highlands, they usually have higher amount of rainfall. The cold usually begins from December and lasts until March. In mountainous regions, snow is at high altitudes for several months, with temperatures dropping to 15 degrees Celsius. The winter season is long in these areas and connects to the summer with a short spring.

Main Winds of the Province
"Western winds" transmit the Atlantic and Mediterranean relative humidity, cause rainfall, and usually have higher current in the winter and spring. "Northern winds" that blow in the summer and are effective in the moderating the  climate of part of the province and decreasing its temperature, and "Sam or Poison Winds", which blow only in the border zone area, make the weather extremely hot and intolerable in the summer and cause a lot of losses.

Taq-e Bostan
Tag- e Bostan is located on the right side of the entrance to the city of Kermanshah, in the northeastern part of the city, and is a collection of petroglyph and inscriptions of the Sassanid period. The nature of the Taq-e-Bostan during the Sassanid period was appropriate woodland for the hunting activity of the kings. The remains of the walls at the bottom of the woodland which closed the path to hunting from the mountains  are still there. After entering the entrance to the Taq-e Bostan, the first petroglyph is related to Ardeshir II where Ardeshir is standing between Ahura Mazda and Mitra, has his face to Ahura Mazda and receives the friendship ring from him by his left hand. Under the feet of Ahura Mazda, the enemy or (Ahriman) has been thrown on the ground. After this petroglyph, there is a small arch, on which bodies  of Shahpur II and his son Shapur III can be seen. The top of each of these petroglyph , the related character has been introduced in Sassanid Pahlavi writing. In the third part of this collection, at the arch entry from the top to the bottom, there are beautiful petroglyph of the winged angels, the tree of life, the hunting ceremonies in the meadow and the hunting of birds and fishes in the marsh and elephant, horses and boats, etc which tell the story of a joyful party with the musicians. At the bottom of this petroglyph, one can see a rider on horseback, an armored army man. Some consider it as a petroglyph of a victorious Sassanid, and others take it as petroglyph of Khosrow Parviz.

The large room dates back to the late Sassanid era. The angels of the arch are the symbol of the epicenter and upper scene within the arch of Khosrow Parviz (628-590 AD) represents Khosroupviz  standing between Anahita, and Ahura Mazda. The rider's sculpture probably belongs to Khosrowpviz, and the side walls are the scene of his hunting and feast. The colorful petroglyph was created in 1237 AH and according to the order of Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshahi, the eldest son of Fathali Shah Qajar.





 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Tag-e Gara
This is an arched rectangular structure with dimensions of 7.70 by 4. 86m is located in Patagh valley along the road of Kermanshah to Sarpol Zahab and beside the paved ancient fortress linking Iran's plateau to Mesopotamia. There are disagreements about the age of this building, some attribute it to the Parthian period, and others to the Sassanid period. Different functions are mentioned for this monuments such as the way for caravan, rest place, the royal mosque, the royal throne, the border guard post, the memorial of victory, etc.

 
 
Sarab Niloofar
This is a small lake about 20 km northwest of Kermanshah, which is full of Niloofar flowers that have come out of water and cover the lake during warm seasons. A tourism and entertainment complex is built next to this lake

 



 

High Relief and Inscription of Darius I
This high relief of Achaemenid period is one of the most valuable literary and historical monuments of Iran, and is located 30 kms away on north-east of Kermanshah, on the cliff known as Bistoon. This mountain is mentioned in the historical texts as "Bughestan", which means the place of the gods, "Behistan", "Behistun", "Behstoon", "Behestan" and Bistoon.

Darius 1st petroglyph is six meters long and 3.20 meters wide. On the left side of petroglyph, the image of Dariush has been sculpted at a height of 1.78 meters. He has a crown on his head and a long shirt on. His beard is curly and rectangular and his curly hair is tied behind it. He has raised his right hand for respect and has a bow in his left hand. In this scene, Darius has put his left foot on the breast of the "Ghomat Magh". Behind Darius the archer "Windeh Farah Na" and the shooter "Geobroh" were are among the seven persons who participated in beating the Geumat.

Under the left foot of Dariush, Guamat, has slept on his back and raised his hands as the sign of surrender. Behind him is the queue of the captives - with the necks and hands tied behind them. On top of each of these captives, under the body of the Guamat, as well as on the third captive dress, the name and picture of the King of the revolt and the place where he had rebelled, is mentioned.
Above the captive's head, a symbolic image of Ahura Mazda donating the ring of power to Darius is carved, and Darius has raised his right hand as the sign of praising Ahura Mazda. The petroglyph was completed over time. At the beginning, Darius only contented to the above reliefs, except for the relief of "Sakonkha". At this time, only a short script was in Elamite's cuneiform in the space above his head. In this script , Darius introduces himself and his family, and in fact, proclaims his legitimacy with this text. Subsequently, he describes his contexts in Elamite cuneiform script on the right side of the rock, and then the Babylonian cuneiform on the left hand side of the petroglyph. In the final stage, under the magnificent high relifs, he describes his victories in cuneiform and the ancient Persian language.

The Achaemenid Stonemasons were still writing lines on the mountains, where the Scythians rebelled again. In 519 BC, Darius defeated the Sekhankhshah of the Scythians, and immediately added the event to the inscription. Since there was no place to add the image of Sokaees' king, Darius ordered to erase part of the Elamite body and sculpt it on the left side of the lower part, alongside the ancient Persian text  and instead of the Elamite.
In this petroglyph, Darius first introduces himself and his family, and then describes the murder of Guyumat Mogh, who has won the monarchy before the death of the Cambyses.

Afterwards, he describes the wars that have been defeated against the great men and rebels and in the end he curses anyone who wipes out this great inscription.

 

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